To hear that you or a relative has a diagnosis of ovarian cancer is frightening. As soon as the first shock subsides, you will probably have many questions and do your own research to answer them. One thing you will probably notice: There are actually three general types of ovarian cancer. While the experience with each patient's cancer patients varies, it may be helpful to know the similarities and differences between these three types.
Ovaries are reproductive glands that produce eggs along with the hormones estrogen and progesterone.
There are three types of ovarian cancer lies in the fact that your ovaries contain three main types of cells, each of which can produce tumors, according to the American Cancer Society (19459012) (ACS). Epithelial cells cover the surface of the ovaries, germ cells form eggs, and stromal cells hold the ovaries together and produce the hormones estrogen and progesterone.
(The emerging science, however, suggests that some ovarian cancers actually begin in Fallopian tubes the structures that connect the ovaries to the uterus.) Scientists are further investigating how exactly this happens.
Let  See the three types of ovarian cancer in detail.
Epithelial ovarian cancer: This begins in the thin layer of tissue that covers the outside of the ovaries, and about 90 percent of ovarian cancers are found in the Mayo Clinic Category.
There are many different types of epithelial ovarian cancer a pattern that you will also see in other types of ovarian cancer. Serous carcinomas are the most common form according to ACS . Serous refers to serum, the clear fluid part of the blood, explains the National Cancer Institute .
. 2 Germ cell ovarian cancer: This begins in the egg-producing cells and accounts for less than 2 percent of ovarian carcinomas after ACS . However, these cases tend to affect girls and young women. Dysgerminoma, the most common type of ovarian carcinoma, typically develops in women between the ages of 20 and 20 years. Another type of ovarian neoplasia called immature teratoma usually occurs in girls under the age of 18 years.
"We do not really know why [these cancers mainly affect young women and girls]" Stephen Rubin, MD, head of the Department of Gynecologic Oncology of the Fox Chase Cancer Center says SELF. "They arise from the germ cells in the ovaries, from which the eggs arise. It may be that these cells are more numerous and active in younger women, but that is speculation. "
. 3 Stromal ovarian cancer: The official numbers vary, but this seems to be about 1 percent of ovarian cancers . It begins in the ovarian tissue, which contains hormone-producing cells, and is usually diagnosed earlier than other ovarian cancers, says the Mayo Clinic [19459004. "[These tumors] tend to sit in the ovary and grow for a long time without spreading," Dr. Ruby. "It gives us more time to find them."
Cancerous stromal growths, which include granulosa cell tumors (the most common type), granulomatous tumors, and Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, can excrete the reproductive hormone estrogen . This is important because it can be reflected in some of the eye-catching symptoms of ovarian cancer, which can often fly under the radar.
Before we turn to the symptoms of ovarian cancer, it is important that you truly say this: not all ovarian growth (or general growth) is cancerous.
Although epithelial, germ cell, and stromal tumors can lead to three types of ovarian cancer of the same name, they can also cause tumors that are not cancerous. Epithelial cystadenomas, for example, are benign growths that can be filled with an aqueous or mucous fluid, according to the Mayo Clinic . And germ cell growth are usually benign tumors that are termed mature teratomas, ACS . These may contain a number of different types of tissue, including – sip – hair, skin and teeth .
There are some typical symptoms of ovarian cancer, but it is frustrating that they are so vague.
"Generally, ovarian cancers do not hurt and do not produce enough conspicuous symptoms, unless [they’ve grown to a] is great," Dr. Ruby. In view of this, these are the usual symptoms of ovarian cancer according to the Mayo Clinic . As you'll see, all of this can be due to a variety of things that are often unrelated to cancer:
- flatulence or swelling in the abdomen area
- When you feel full quickly
- Unexplained weight loss  Pelvic discomfort
- Changes in bowel habits, such as constipation
- must piss much
Epithelial ovarian carcinomas (which make up 90 percent of all ovarian cancers) Most likely are these common but nebulous symptoms, says Dr , Robert Wenham, chair of gynecological oncology at Moffitt Cancer Center, told SELF. The other two less common forms are at least more likely to show conspicuous symptoms.
Some germ cell cancers, especially dysgerminomas, can grow to a great extent before diagnosis, which can trigger a person with abdominal pain, says Rubin. They can also cause irregular bleeding. "These tumors are highly vascular and can burst and bleed," he says.
Abnormal vaginal bleeding is actually the most common symptom of stromal ovarian cancer, says ACS . This is due to the above-mentioned excess of estrogen that this cancer can produce. On the other hand, stromal tumors can also make up hormones like testosterone, says the ACS . This can cause one person's periods to be stopped, causing them to grow facial and body hairs. When the tumor starts to bleed, it can lead to severe abdominal pain that seems to appear out of nowhere as explained by ACS .
The added estrogen from stromal ovarian cancer may also cause Tenderness Shannon Westin, MD, an adjunct professor in the Department of Gynecologic Oncology and Reproductive Medicine at the MD Anderson Cancer Center, tells SELF how the breast is located developed during puberty.
Treatment for ovarian cancer varies according to the stage, grade and type of a person to whom they are diagnosed.
You are probably already familiar with the staging of which basically finds out how far a cancer has spread. Let's talk about ovarian cancer. Depending on how much the tissue in a cancerous tumor looks like normal tissue, it will receive a grade, ACS . The higher the degree, the less the tumor has in common with normal tissue. The tumor also gets a type (beyond the general types of ovarian cancer discussed above) based on how fast the cells grow and how well they respond to chemotherapy. Type 1 tumors grow more slowly and cause fewer symptoms, says the ACS while type II does the opposite.
Doctors have the suspicion that someone is suffering from ovarian cancer Wenham says that this surgery until she receives a pathological report that typically comes after surgery, which is why surgery is a majorstay treatment of ovarian cancer Cancer has spread, explains the Mayo Clinic . Remember that malignant and borderline malignant tumors can all form metastases.
If the cancer is confined to an ovary, surgery may require removal of only the gland and associated fallopian tube, according to the Mayo Clinic . , This may be a good fit if the patient wishes to continue to physically conceive in the future . If the cancer has spread to both ovaries, they must be removed, as well as the fallopian tubes. However, leaving the uterus behind can theoretically still carry a pregnancy over frozen embryos frozen eggs or donor eggs. However, if the cancer also affects the uterus (or if the person prefers to remove the uterus instead of having a chance to physically carry a pregnancy), this organ can also be taken out together with the ovaries and fallopian tubes. the Mayo Clinic explains. Nearby lymph nodes and a piece of adipose tissue of the abdomen, the so-called omentum, may also contain cancerous cells at this point, so they are likely to appear.
In addition, doctors may recommend chemotherapy to kill cancerous cells that remain after surgery. "Radiation can rarely be used," says Dr. Wenham. Radiation relies on strong radiation or energy particles to target these cancer cells, but chemotherapy tends to be more effective in ovarian cancer .
Because cancer experiences can be so different in every human, this is just meant to be an informative primer. If you or a loved one is diagnosed with ovarian cancer, Dr. Westin, that it is important to be treated by a specialist, if possible, especially in a large cancer center that often deals with ovarian cancer. You should be able to explain the specifics of the situation and hopefully determine which treatment has the best chance of success.