For decades, the line of experts on exercise and weight loss was simple: do so much, lose so much. But recently, they have changed their attitude: While exercise is great for general physical and mental health, they do not expect it to necessarily deliver the best result most men want when they go to a gym.
Why the change? ? It depends mainly on Hadza piss.
The Hadza are hunters and gatherers in East Africa who have more exercise in one day than many of us in one week. When the scientists began to measure the calorie costs of all the hunting and gathering (plus anything else that needed energy), they were drinking water with two rare isotopes. After reviewing the elimination isotopes and comparing the ratio of the two isotopes, they were able to determine how much CO2 the Hadzas produced during that time and how many calories they burned altogether.
"I came to this study. Suppose the more activity you have, the more calories you burn," says Dr. Herman Pontzer, anthropologist at Hunter College and one of the architects of this paradigmatic research. He also assumed the opposite: the more time you spend sitting, the fewer calories you burn. So when he did a pissing match between slender and hungry Hadza and sedentary clerk, he was shocked by the results. Taking into account the size of the body, the snails had the same energy expenditure as men chasing giraffes to make a living.
Pontzer says he is the same for all species. The daily calorie consumption of a caged zoo animal is the same as that of its birthless counterpart in the Serengeti. Your metabolism seems to adjust the more you are more active to balance your calorie balance.
This means that regardless of the number of calories that a normal guy burns on exercise, his body will find ways to limit the number of calories burned the rest of the day. When researchers compared sedentary individuals with moderately active individuals, the active group burned only about 200 more calories per day in total, even at higher activity levels. This is a far cry from the numbers you see on your fitness tracker. Pontzer calls this "limited energy consumption". And your metabolism has plenty of room for adjustments, as 50 to 70 percent of energy use is used for the basic functions of survival, 1
Depressing? Yes, especially for the millions of Americans who probably would not train if they did not believe it would help them lose weight. But is it really the last word? Not necessarily.
What is energy flow?
Mick DiMaria is a small, 5" -7 "creative director and author based in Southern California. He held his weight constant for most of his adult life without much effort, gaining about 10 pounds during the holidays and losing it after the beginning of the new year. "But in my forties it was not so easy to lose it," he says. At 174 pounds, it was well below the national average of 196 pounds for men. Still, he says, "I've increased the maximum density." So he hired a coach. Although his initial focus was on building muscle, he started losing weight, averaging half a pound a week. After just over a year, he had dropped to 147.
If you look at DiMaria today, you would never guess it's 24 pounds lighter. And if you did that, you'd think it was because he drastically changed his diet. But he says these changes were modest, like eating more whole foods and having lunch instead of takeaway. "I've never skipped meals," he says. "I never gave up anything. I just had less of it.
DiMaria is hardly the only one. Every coach has at least one client like him, someone whose body has never been told that weight loss sport is ineffective. You probably saw it yourself – the cousin who started training in his basement and lost his stomach, the neighbor who lost 10 or 20 pounds by walking around the block.
"Sport alone does not work for the majority of the population. But there are smaller subgroups in which we see it, "says Brian St. Pierre, M.S., R.D., Director of Performance Nutrition at Precision Nutrition. How rare are these subsets? What do these people do that makes them exceptions to the new research? And can you turn into an exception for your purposes or do you have to be born that way? At least one researcher says we could have more control than we think.
"I am firmly convinced that exercise can contribute to weight loss," says dr. Clemens Drenowatz, Professor of Physical Education at the University of Education Upper Austria. One reason is a concept called "energy flow" or the rate of energy turnover in the body.
How Energy Flow Works
Imagine three types with stable body weights: Two of them have the same daily routine Energy consumption – say 3000 calories. Both have a high flow, meaning they absorb a lot of calories and burn many calories. But their bodies burn energy very differently. The first type moves more, both deliberately (through training) and unintentionally (by fidgeting and spending more time on his feet). The second guy is pretty sedentary, he has an office job and does not exercise a lot. The heavier body of the second man, however, needs more energy for exercise and to stay alive. Assuming that the calorie intake remains the same, neither of them increases or loses weight.
Now consider the third one. It has a low flow, so it consumes less calories and burns less daily than the other two, but also balances and keeps its weight stable.
Earlier research from the 1950s suggested that people who exercise the least could possibly consume more calories than they consume. The more exercise a person has, the easier it may be to avoid gaining weight.
But something else happens in the extreme case, something else scientists still do not quite understand. Paradoxically, the higher the numbers (calorie intake / calorie intake), the easier it is to control fat.
This is from a three-year study by the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition on teenagers published in 2016. The scientists found that adolescents who ate a lot of calories and burned a lot of calories decreased their body fat during those three years, while those who ate little and burned little increased in fat. This despite the fact that adolescents in the high-flux group consumed several hundred more calories per day than they needed to maintain their weight at the beginning of the study, while low-flow adolescents ate in maintaining body weight. The combination of high volume and high spending was somewhat more powerful than any variable in itself, making them leaner than they should have been.