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Borderline Personality Disorder: 13 Facts Everyone Should Know



Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is an often misunderstood mental illness often associated with bipolar disorder . In fact, it is a very different mental illness. Take a few minutes to read the following facts and better understand the borderline personality disorder along with the people who live with it. 1 Borderline personality disorder often causes symptoms such as extreme mood shifts and uncertainty about how a person views himself and others.

People with BPD tend to have difficulty in regulating emotions, an unstable sense of self, and a pattern of intense, unstable relationships. In essence, BPD affects a person's thinking and feeling about themselves and others so strongly that it negatively affects their everyday lives, according to the Mayo Clinic .

The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Using mental health professionals to diagnose mental illness requires that someone has at least five of the following symptoms to obtain a BPD diagnosis:

  1. Panic efforts to avoid abandonment (either real or imaginary)
  2. intense relationships that vary between affection and love (idealization) to dislike or anger (devaluation)
  3. A bad or unstable self-esteem
  4. Impulsive and dangerous behavior in at least two potentially harmful areas, z. B. Spending a lot of money or having unsafe sexual encounters
  5. Self-harm or suicidal behavior / threats
  6. Extreme mood shifts that usually take several hours
  7. Empty feeling
  8. Problems with controlling anger [19659] 013] Sich feel isolated from themselves or from reality

It is possible to experience a mixture of these symptoms and not have a personality disorder on the borderline. The signs must be extraordinary and persistent to meet the criteria for this condition.

For example, people with BPD experience not just mood swings. These shifts can be so serious that a person feels overwhelmed by massive waves of emotion. Francheska Perepletchikova PhD student, assistant professor of psychology in psychiatry at Weill Cornell Medical College and founder and director of the youth welfare office. Dialectical Behavioral Therapy Program at Weill Cornell Medicine and New York Presbyterian Hospital, SELF reports. And the incentive for these extreme emotional responses may be low, as a beloved person goes on a business trip, according to the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH).

Or, as another example, many people without BPD are afraid of people they like or love. However, people with BPD often experience this so intensely that they find it difficult to trust others, and they will prevent people from their lives as a preventative measure, according to NIMH .

. 2 It is estimated that BPD affects about 1 percent of people in the United States.

The 2007 published National Comorbidity Survey Replication, published in Biological Psychiatry gives an estimate of the number of BPDs. The nationally representative study examined 5,692 individuals and found that although the prevalence of a personality disorder was about 9 percent, only 1.4 percent of respondents met the diagnostic criteria, especially for BPD.

. 3 People with BPD often have other mental illnesses.

According to The National Comorbidity Survey Replication 84.5 percent of respondents with BPD had a co-occurring mental disorder.

The nature of these comorbidities varies from person to person and can make it difficult to detect BPD after NIMH . For example, intense episodes of depression can be a symptom of BPD, but they can also be the result of a condition such as depression or bipolar disorder .

The relationship between BPD and other conditions is not fully understood Perepletchikova explains that a substance disorder can be a negative coping mechanism to deal with the painful symptoms of BPD. Similarly, feelings of abandonment and alienation (of oneself and others) along with a lack of close and stable relationships can trigger depression, says Perepletchikova.

. 4 Borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder are not the same thing.

They share some significant similarities, namely that bipolar disorder also causes extreme mood and behavioral shifts. However, these shifts mainly relate to depressive and manic episodes (with abnormally high and energetic moods) or hypomanic episodes, which also involve unusually high energy and activity levels, but to a lesser extent. Also, the fear of abandonment and unstable personal relationships that are inherent in BPD are not the diagnostic criteria for bipolar disorder.

. 5 People with BPD are at an increased risk of self-harm and suicide due to a mixture of intense emotions and impulsivity.

In addition to self-harm suicide bombing prejudices and behaviors are much more common with BPD, according to NIMH . The generally accepted figure cited by the American Psychiatric Association estimates that 8 to 10 percent of people with BPD will die from suicide, which is tragically high. In this context, it is important to know that the number of suicide attempts in this community is so high (19459004) that some sources say 60 to 70 percent ] then it could be.

People with BPD can hurt themselves because they feel like an instant relief for increased emotions, explains Perepletchikova. Similarly, someone may seek suicide as an impulsive means of coping with the profound emotional suffering that BPD can cause. Katherine Dixon-Gordon Ph.D., clinical psychologist and assistant professor, who studies BPD at the University of London Massachusetts Amherst, tells SELF.

. 6 There is no single cause for BPD, but experts believe that there are several important risk factors.

According to NIMH studies suggest that a combination of hereditary, neurological and environmental factors increases a person's probability of BPD.

If a family member has BPD, it is likely that you have it too, but there is no known gene associated with the disease, according to NIMH . It also appears that the brains of people with BPD have structural and functional changes in areas related, for example, to emotional regulation, but it is not clear whether these changes are a cause or a result of the disease. And when it comes to environmental factors, many people with BPD report childhood traumas, including abuse, abandonment, and unstable relationships with their parents.

. 7 Some experts argue for the diagnosis of BPD in adolescents, while others prefer to wait until adulthood.

People under the age of 18 have general reluctance to diagnose personality disorders. As the Mayo Clinic explains, BPD sometimes seems to be simply part of the emotional maturation of a child or a teenager.

With this statement, clinicians discover that BPD can be detected in children and adolescents . Possible signs are similar to those in adults and include impulsive risk taking, frequent angry outbursts, persistent interpersonal problems, significantly low self-esteem and repeated self-harm or suicide attempts.

"The earlier we intervene, the more likely we are to help," explains Dixon-Gordon.

. 8 The first treatment for BPD is therapy .

"Our goal is to help our clients, as it were, build emotional regulation muscles to withstand the effects of these emotions [waves]," says Perepletchikova. "We can not take away their emotional reactivity, but we can teach them the ability to respond [better] to the emotional response."

One method for this is Dialectic Behavioral Therapy (DBT), which combines acceptance and mindfulness own emotional state with coping skills for these emotions according to NIMH . Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), which can help people with BPD to recognize and manage their emotions and behaviors, is another common option, says NIMH .

. 9 For a person with BPD, it can be difficult to trust their therapist, but this attachment is often a prerequisite for recovery.

This is why therapists who treat BPD emphasize acceptance and validation, emphasizes Perepletchikova. (She notes that there is an important distinction between accepting a statement or behavior – "I understand why you did that" – and tolerating – "Good work, do it.")

In addition to this one-on-one talk In a model, group sessions led by a therapist can help people with BPD learn how to best interact and interact with other people, says NIMH .

10th There are no medications specifically recommended for the treatment of BPD.

The use of drugs as a primary treatment for BPD is simply not clear enough, explains NIMH .

However, a psychiatrist Perepletchikova says that medications could be prescribed to treat certain symptoms that occur in some people, such as mood stabilizers for emotional instability. In addition, someone with BPD who suffers from a clinically diagnosed concomitant disorder, such as anxiety, depression or PTSD (19459099), may take medicines to treat these conditions.

. 11 BPD is often stigmatized even among health care providers.

A review of available literature from 2013, published in found in Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience that some psychosocial providers advocate false and harmful views on BPD. Even laymen can believe these myths.

One of the most pervasive misunderstandings among professionals and non-professionals is that people with BPD intentionally and maliciously try to manipulate their environment with extreme emotion or self-harm. Dixon-Gordon says. That's wrong. These symptoms are due to a mental illness, not a person who decides of his own volition to manipulate other people.

12th People with BPD can be sensitive and lovable individuals.

"Extreme emotional sensitivity brings with it serious challenges but also benefits," says Perepletchikova. In her experience, people with BPD often understand people's feelings better. She also believes that many people with BPD are unusually creative because they have a deeper and more encompassing experience of the human emotions from which they can draw.

This is part of the reason that Perepletchikova says that people with BPD are their favorite people. "They are really funny, creative, compassionate, beautiful people," she explains.

. 13 With solid therapy and hard work, the long-term prospects for people with BPD can be very good.

"Research shows that remission rates are incredibly high," says Dixon-Gordon. A study of 175 BPD patients, published in Archives of General Psychiatry in 2011, found that 85 percent delivered within 10 years. (Researchers defined that remission met two or fewer BPD criteria.) Most of these changes occurred in earlier years, the authors of the study said.

"It's treatable, and it helps out there."

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