If you've never really understood what bipolar disorder is, it's a mental illness characterized by unusual changes in a person's mood, thinking, energy level, performance, and functioning is marked. There are many misconceptions about bipolar disorder, and one of the most misunderstood aspects is the connection between bipolar disorder (19459006) and psychosis.
Psychosis is a mental state in which someone resolves delusions of reality and experience (false beliefs), hallucinations (seeing and hearing things that do not exist), or both.
Here are eight things you should know about the interesting connection between the two.
. 1 People may feel psychotic during severe bipolar mood episodes of mania or depression.
Manic episodes include abnormally elevated mood and activity levels for at least seven days, according to the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). (Or strong enough to warrant hospitalization.) Depressive episodes are at the other end of the spectrum. This means that for at least two weeks, someone deals with a weak mood and a low energy level. Here's more on the symptoms of bipolar disorder .
"We say that in bipolar disorder, the person may have psychotic symptoms during the peak of mania or the depth of depression." Descartes Li MD, clinical professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Director of the Bipolar Disorder Program at the University of California, San Francisco, opposite SELF. Signs of psychosis may also occur during severe mixed mood episodes in which the subject experiences both symptoms of mania and depression.
. 2 Psychosis can occur in both bipolar I and bipolar II.
People with bipolar I can experience a wider range of symptoms than those with bipolar II, but both can go through psychosis.
If you have bipolar I, that means you may have manic episodes, hypomanic episodes (with heightened mood and energetic level, but less severe than mania), depressive episodes, and mixed episodes. If you have Bipolar II, you only have hypomanic and depressive episodes. More about the similarities and differences between the two you can read here .
Psychosis does not occur in [cyclothymia] (https://www.self.com/story/understanding-cyclothymia-cyclothymic- disorder] (a less severe form of bipolar disorder) according to the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) (1945), which may occur in Other specified and unspecified bipolar and related disorders This is the case when someone experiences symptoms of bipolar disorder that do not meet the criteria of any of the above conditions
3. Not everyone who has bipolar disorder experiences psychosis.
Final data on how prevalent psychosis is Bipolar disorders are scarce: a 2007 meta-analysis the data from 5,973 Persons with bipolar disorder from 33 studies conducted between 1922 and 2005, found that 61 percent of them had at least one symptom of psychosis at any given time in their group ppe had lives.
Wh around it is clear that while psychosis appears to be relatively common in bipolar disorder, a fairly large number of people with the condition will never know. Li.
Likewise not everyone who suffers from psychosis. Malaspina says it can be experienced during a mood episode with every mood episode. And just because someone has not experienced any psychotic symptoms in one episode does not mean that he will never do it.
. 4 Psychosis during a bipolar mood episode may be very similar to the psychotic episode of schizophrenia.
When a doctor has seen a new patient in the midst of a manic manic or depressive episode without psychosis. html It is extremely difficult to know if you are looking at someone with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. Malaspina. In fact, people with bipolar disorder who suffer from psychosis are sometimes misdiagnosed with schizophrenia (NIMH ). Therefore, it is important to get a complete medical history and observe the patient over time.
. 5 In bipolar disorders, delusions and hallucinations are often mood-congruent, ie they reflect a manic or depressed disposition.
When delusions and hallucinations fit with their mood, their psychotic episodes are called mood-congruent.  For example, someone who experiences a psychosis during a maniacal episode may have terrific delusions about how rich and powerful he is, or show a level of confidence that is detached from reality, Dr. Li.
A depressive episode could cause her to have caused the onset of a terrible illness, or she is a delinquent criminal and feels awful in a way that's scary on herself.
. 6 Mood-incongruent episodes in which the person's delusions or hallucinations do not match their mood seem to be rarer.
For example, Dr. Li, someone who has a manic or depressive episode, might believe that a microchip is implanted in his head telling him what to do or hear her thoughts being sent. These delusions and hallucinations are no more or less false or imaginary than mood-congruent, but they do not match the emotional state of a person in a manic or depressive episode.
Although there are no hard numbers, as usual the mood is -congruent vs. mood-congruent psychosis is in a bipolar disorder, the common understanding in the psychiatric field is that the hallucinations of a person's moods are the most frequent, Li. However, there is evidence that mood-ingramant psychotic episodes can be more dangerous for people with bipolar disorder.
A study published in the American Journal of Psychiatry in 2007 compared 291 individuals with bipolar I disorder who had mood-congruent psychotic features in 404 people with bipolar I disorder with mood-congruent psychotic features. (Researchers also included 866 people who did not have psychosis.) They found that the mood mismatch group was more likely to be hospitalized, attempted suicide, and had substance use problems in the past. The people in this group also had a significantly higher lifetime prevalence of auditory and visual hallucinations overall, as well as the so-called paranoia delusions in which the person believes that others intentionally endanger them or attempt to harm them. Researchers are investigating a possible genetic cause underlying inequality.
. 7 Psychosis is treated with antipsychotics.
"You need to treat psychoses immediately with antipsychotics, [because] it can be dangerous to lose touch with reality," says Dr. Li.
People with bipolar disorder who are suffering from psychosis are usually prescribed what is referred to as atypical antipsychotics or second generation antipsychotics, according to the NIMH . They work until 19459004 and affect various neurotransmitters in the brain, including dopamine. First-generation antipsychotics, which also reduce dopamine, are used less often, says Drs. Malaspina. This is due to different side effects.
The most common side effects of antipsychotics in general are sedation and drowsiness, Dr. Li, but they may also include things like nausea, blurred vision and low blood pressure NIMH . Atypical antipsychotics cause more metabolic side effects such as weight gain, while typical antipsychotics are more closely associated with exercise-related side effects such as tremor. In general, typical antipsychotics tend to cause more serious long-term side effects, as motor dyskinesia can trigger the uncontrollable muscle movements that often occur in the mouth area.
Antipsychotics are beginning to treat some symptoms, such as hallucinations, within days, while it may take weeks [NNH] after the weeks to completely resign themselves to delusions. The person suffering from psychosis often has to be hospitalized or otherwise under medical supervision to prevent harm to themselves, says Dr. Li.
The duration of treatment varies greatly with the patient. Some people with bipolar disorder will take antipsychotics only when the symptoms cease and cease a few weeks or months after they occur, says dr. Li. Other people may spend a year on a low dose of antipsychotic medication before they ease to prevent another episode, says Dr. Malaspina. And sometimes people stay with them indefinitely as a maintenance therapy.
Mostly, antipsychotics are only one component of the drug used to treat bipolar disorder, according to NIMH . Other medications such as mood stabilizers can also be used. Here you can find more information on the different types of drugs used to treat bipolar disorders .
. 8 The best way to deal with psychosis is to prevent as many mood swings as possible.
"The longer [a person with bipolar disorder] remains stable at the onset of the disease, the better its prognosis is in the long term," says Malaspina. To achieve this stability, one usually needs to stick to a treatment plan, including medication and therapy and avoid episode-triggering such as extreme stress, sleep deprivation, and drug abuse, Dr. Li. It also means that you often visit a doctor and adjust the treatment plan as needed.