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Biomarker Discovery: A New Research in Malaria Detection



  Biomarker Discovery: A New Discovery of Malaria Discovery

Here's a new biomarker discovery that facilitates the discovery of malaria.

Researchers from the National Institute of Research at Tribal of the Indian Council of Medical Research at Jabalpur Health (NIRTH) have identified the genetic sequence in the body of the malaria parasite. It should help to develop a more sensitive diagnostic test for the disease.

Causes of Malaria

Malaria is caused by Plasmodium parasites that are transmitted from infected Anopheles mosquitoes to humans and from human to human a transmissible disease.

Current Scenario

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Currently, tests used to diagnose malaria are based on a histidine-rich protein gene 2 (HRP2). full of amino acid histidine. However, studies have shown that this gene is often absent in some strains of the malaria parasite. As a result, significant malaria infections remained undetected. Scientists around the world have been looking for new biomarkers that would be more effective.

Each parasite has several specific genes that can be specifically identified or killed. However, these genes are not equally present in all strains of a parasite. While scientists identify the genes or proteins for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes, they select a gene or protein that has the least variation across different regions so that it can be used in a wider range than possible. Scientifically, such a gene is considered to be well conserved.

In this study, scientists at NIRTH investigated under ICMR three genes: glutamate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, and aldolase from Plasmodium falciparum, a plethora of malaria parasites that is the deadliest. The most suitable solution was found to be a glutamate dehydrogenase enzyme whose sequencing is unique and used to detect malaria.

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NIRTH scientists collected 51

4 blood samples from malaria-infected patients from the country's eight endemic malaria states, isolated DNA from them and reinforced the three genes. The genes were then sequenced and the nucleotide composition of the samples compared. Among the three genes, the nucleotide composition of glutamate dehydrogenase was nearly the same throughout the samples.

Analysis

Analysis of the protein structure of this gene revealed that it folded across the samples into a similar protein structure, confirming that it might be a potential biomarker of malaria.

The team consisted of Amreen Ahmad, Anil Kumar Verma, Sri Krishna, Neeru Singh (National Institute for Tribal Health Research) and Anjana Sharma (University of Rani Durgavati, Jabalpur). The research results were published in the journal PLoS One. (India Science Wire)

Research

This research will help eradicate malaria in our nation, and will serve as the key to developing better disease detection, treatment and eradication. It will also be useful in WHO's announced Global Technical Strategy (2016-30) for eliminating malaria by 2030, adopted by the World Health Assembly in May 2015.

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by: Onlymyhealth Staff Writer

Source: Onlymyhealth Editorial Staff July 11, 2019


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