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Autopsy History | The full story of the autopsy



With respect to the ultimate medical audit, an autopsy can be distinguished by five different causes of death: natural, accidental, murderous, suicidal, or indeterminate. Not everyone receives an autopsy after death; In a case where suspicious circumstances surround death, a medical examiner or coroner may order an autopsy without the consent of the next of kin. If your family still has doubts about what killed you, you can apply for the procedure, but you must pay the cost ($ 2.50 to $ 5,000) yourself.

In the last 2,500 years, mystic medicine has vanished art for the right science, including the field of pathology and the search for what the body of a person can tell us, how they died. Autopsies can give answers ̵

1; but even now they find only a cloud of uncertainty. Here is her story.

In some cases, the king participated in the sections.

460-370 BC Still no autopsies During this time, however, the Greek physician Hippocrates argued that diseases had natural rather than supernatural causes. He justifies the humorous theory: four wise men, black bile, yellow bile, mucus and blood, form the human body. All illnesses and disabilities are the result of an imbalance in the proportion of humors to the elements in the body.

  Ptolemy I Soter.

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367-282 BC. Ptolemy I Soter, King of Egypt, He advocates pathological anatomy and founds the great university and library in Alexandria. He is the first ruler to allow doctors to cut and examine bodies for learning purposes. Most early dissections were performed on executed criminals. The king even participated in the sections.

335-280 BC Herophilus of Chalcedon, a Greek physician who is considered to be the first anatomist, carries out regular autopsies on humans and animals in Alexandria and records a treatise on human anatomy. He introduces many of the scientific concepts that have been used to date to describe anatomical phenomena and was responsible for discovering the anatomical distinction between arteries and veins as well as the existence and difference between motor and sensory nerves.

Frederick ordered that medical schools would at least receive two bodies of executed criminals per year

310-250 BC. Erasistratus denies the prevalent "humor" theory and argues that disease is caused by changes in the organs. Despite the fact that he had misinformed the circulation of the blood, he found that the heart prevented blood from refluxing and that the epiglottis covered the trachea during swallowing.

44 BC The first recorded autopsy takes place when Antistius, after his murder, examines Julius Caesar's body and determines which of the 23 stab wounds proved fatal. It was a wound on the chest that broke Caesar's aorta.

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AD 131-201 Galen of Pergamon is the first person to have the symptoms of a patient with the correlates what was found in the investigation of the affected area of ​​the deceased. He produces a great deal of written text on the human body – his meticulous masterpiece bears the title On the Usefulness of the Part of the Body – though his writings were based on inaccurate humoral theory.

1091-1161 Ibn Zuhr, who is considered the father of experimental surgery, performs animal tests before operating on hum and thus invents the surgical procedure of tracheostomy. Zuhr performed dissections and postmortem autopsies at a time when they were a big taboo. Through his autopsy results, he concludes that the skin disease is caused by a parasite that contradicts the theory of the four humors.

1231 The first law authorizing human dissection was established during the reign of Emperor Frederick II. Frederick ordered that medical schools each year receive at least two bodies of executed criminals for study and demonstration purposes.

1247 Song Ci wrote Hsi Yüan Lu, or The Washing Away of Wrongs an instruction manual on how to perform medical-legal examinations, examine corpses, and determine time and cause of death , Other forward-looking forensic issues were illustrated, such as poisoning, decomposition, wounds of various weapons, strangulation and false wounds.

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			<span class=; Influenced by The Washing Away of Wrongs, Bartolomeo da Varignana performed the first known autopsy in which death was explicitly investigated to determine whether or not there was a fault (which is referred to as a medical-legal autopsy The investigation was requested by a magistrate in Bologna: Before the advent of the microscope, his observations were limited by the power of the human eye and its tools.

Throughout the Renaissance Anatomy Teachers and Students In medical schools, they did not conduct sections, they gathered in an operating room and watched as a carcass was opened by a "lay-dissector". Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo performed a series of "autopsies," sharing corpses and observing the anatomy, which was invisible to the naked eye.

1507 Antonio Benivieni is considered one of the founders of pathological anatomy because he used anatomical dissection to determine the cause of death, and published The Hidden Cultures of Disease which furthered the exploration of forensic pathology has been. Some of his protocols are still used today.

"Gangrenous pus does not taste good and causes the tongue to tingle over a longer day."

1533 The first autopsy in the New World takes place when the Catholic Church ordered an autopsy on the bonded infant. The twins Joana and Melchiora, who had died eight days after birth, were to determine if the children had one have a common soul, and the priest baptized them as a precaution separately, as he was not sure if they represented two bodies and two souls only one.

1539 A judge from Padua, who participated in work with anatomy professors Andreas Vesalius, granted physicians the right to dissect bodies of executed criminals. Vesalius concluded that Galen's similarities between animal and human anatomy, as well as his observation errors, blocked a deeper understanding of the human body.

  Anatomical drawing from & # 39; De humani corporis fabrica libri septem & # 39; (On the Tissue of the Human Body in Seven Books) by Andreas Vesalius, 1543

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1543 Vesalius publishes his detailed documentation of human anatomy entitled De Humani Corporis Fabrica Libri Septem ( The Seven Books on the Structure of the Human Body ) refuted the theory of four wounds. Unfortunately, the theory dominated the pathological discourse until the 19th century. He broke the paradigm of medicine that separated intellectual and experiential work. After the release of Fabrica medical schools called for students to dissect human carcasses.

1679 Théophile Bonet Sepulchretum a complete, organized anthology that reviewed 3,000 autopsies classifying sections for disease and symptoms. Bonet laid the foundation for Giovanni Morgagni, who probably wrote the first and most famous pathology textbook. Morgagni wrote about the influence of Bonet wrote: "By collecting as large a number as possible and digesting the sections of bodies carried away by disease, he shapes them into a compact body; and this led to these observations, which, when scattered up and down the writings of almost innumerable authors, were of little advantage to become extremely useful when collected and methodically disposed of.

1690s Experienced Italian anatomist Antonio Valsalva was not informed about the mechanisms of disease transmission and the proper chemical tests, so he sometimes tried the liquids he was exposed to in carcasses An observation: "Gangrenous pus does not taste good and causes the tongue to tingle unpleasantly for much of the day."

1724 Hermann Boerhaave documented spontaneous esophageal rupture (a condition known as Boerhaave syndrome after an autopsy by an admiral of the Dutch Navy named Baronet Wassenaer, Boerhaave emphasized the importance of obtaining complete medical records in connection with the completion of autopsies.

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1740 Anatomist Anna Morandi married the artist and wax sculpture Giovanni Manzolini, and the two performed in Bologna Resuscitation of medical science through: They dissected hundreds of carcasses and created hundreds of anatomical wax sculptures that developed a completely new method: Instead of approaching the whole body for dissection and study, they extracted organ systems for further halving and separate study using it they allowed intu wax models of individual organ systems for educational purposes.

1751 The British Parliament passed the Murder Law, including the provision "To Better Prevent the Cruel Murder Crime" which lend some "further horrors and special signs The Punishment is supplemented by further infamy. The law ordered either the public dissection or the hanging of the carcasses in chains.

1761 Giovanni Morgagni described what was to be seen in his voluminous work with the naked eye. De Sedibus and Causis by Anatomen Indagatis ( On the examined seats and causes of disease ) . He compared the symptoms and observations in approximately 700 patients with his anatomical findings in the examination of their corpses, thus expanding the understanding of pathology. He organized his cases for organ systems and documented the patient histories and correlated them with the results of the autopsy. Many consider De Sedibus the first pathology textbook and Morgagni the father of pathological anatomy .

1775 After his friend Dr. Joseph Warren was shot and killed At the Battle of Bunker Hill, Paul Revere made the first forensic tooth identification of the remains of his friend, as he was responsible for making the ivory teeth on the body.

1800 The French physician Xavier Bichat, who as the father of histology and tissue pathology was the first person to look deeper than the organs, dissected the organs and analyzed the tissue that comprised them. He decided that the human body could be dissected into 21 different tissue types, the vital functional and structural elements of the organs.

1800s Karl Rokitansky performed more than 30,000 autopsies (including that of Ludwig van Beethoven)) and overseen 70,000 during his 45-year career. Through his meticulous procedures, in which he examined every part of the body, he was able to catalog pathological findings in more detail than ever before.

1821 Napoleon Bonaparte allegedly requested an autopsy as his death wish . : "After my death, I want you to perform an autopsy … to submit a detailed report to my son. Indicate with what means or ways of life he can work to prevent his suffering. This is very important as my dad died … with symptoms that are very similar to mine. "His personal physician Francesco Antommarchi carried out the autopsy, which became unmistakable signs of gastric cancer.

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<p class= 1832 The British Parliament passed the Anatomy Act, granting physicians clearance to anatomy teachers, and medical students to dissect donated bodies in response to rampant disgust with the illegal corpse trade.

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1839 The first senior physician of the Johns Hopkins Hospital, Dr. William Osler, helped found the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine: Osler, often referred to as father of modern medicine insisted that students learn to see and talk to patients rather than confine themselves in lecture theaters His first major residency program for specialist education was based on the 1,000 autopsies that he performed, and Johns Hopkins is now the Permier Institution where autopsies are performed .

1853 With the autopsies who are now a mainstay in the criminal investigation, Dr. Sharber played one at a young slave in Tennessee who was suspected to have been pregnant and poisoned He found that she suffered from long-term uterine cancer, which caused her to bleed to death. Her plantation owner ordered the autopsy to prove his innocence, and eventually he was relieved.

1865 An autopsy of the murdered United States President Abraham Lincoln was conducted in the White House by army surgeons. Lincoln's wife, Mary Todd, sent a messenger to request a lock of hair, and a tuft was cut off her head.

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1870s The father of modern pathology, Rudolf Virchow The importance of the microscope in performing pathological examinations, by the smallest Uncovering Details: Through his research, he has identified a case of leukemia, and his finding is one of the first formal reports of this cancer.

1892 American poet Walt Whitman died on March 26 and his autopsy revealed "his brain was found unusually large."

1902 While working at the Johns Hopkins Laboratories, Dr. Dorothy Reed Mendenhall proved, in part by analyzing autopsies, that the Hodgkin's Disease was not a form of tuberculosis, and discovered the characteristic of the disease blood cell disorder (known as Reed cell)). She was then only 28 years old.

1912 Oops. Richard Cabot examined 3,000 autopsy reports and reported that more than 50 percent of the diagnoses were false.

1915 In the first high-profile homicide case in which a medical examiner was involved, Bernard Spilsbury linked George Smith to the murder of his three wives, each in the bathtub.

1936 The Canadian doctor Maude Abbott worked in the pathology department of McGill University. Her research focused on congenital heart disease, and her publication Atlas of Congenital Heart Disease outlined a new classification system for heart disease, greatly improved the understanding of the anatomy of the heart and laid the foundation for modern cardiac surgery. 19659002] 1946 The forensic pathologist Arthur Keith Mant led the medical department of the British Army War Group. Evidence from exhumed bodies led to the execution of prominent Nazi doctors.

1951 The Joint Commission on Hospital Accreditation was established and determined an autopsy rate of at least 20 percent to ensure and improve the quality of hospital care and make mortality statistics more accurate.

1952 The Forensic Pathology Committee was established by the College of American Pathologists to improve forensic education of pathologists.

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			<span class= Getty Images Paul Harris

1953 Dr. Edith Potter published her Magnum Opus Pathology of the Fetus and Newborn, Paving the way for perinatal pathology: Over the course of 33 years at the University of Chicago, Potter performed 10,000 neoplasms on infants and published 140 papers and six books, and in the 1930s found that the most common causes of death in infants were intracranial Bleeding and hypoxia associated with long, traumatic efforts In the 1940s, she combined frequent abnormal facial features in infants (a condition known as Potter's Facies)

1962 On August 5, the day she died, Marilyn Monroe showed signs of advanced rigor mortality, and the coroners believed she had died between 8:30 pm and 10:30 on the 4th of August. The toxicological analysis determined the cause of death: acute barbiturate poisoning.

1968 US Attorney General Ramsey Clark asked four physicians to examine photographs, x-rays, and other evidence and to assess their significance in relation to the medical conclusions in the autopsy report on the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. They concluded that Kennedy was hit by two bullets fired from above and behind, one of which pierced the neck on the right side without hitting a bone, and the other went from behind into the skull and exploded on the right Page. [19659009] 1971 The Joint Hospital Accreditation Commission (JCAH) overruled the requirement for a minimum autopsy rate for hospital accreditation, leading to a further decline in autopsies.

1977 Elvis Presley dies suddenly and unexpectedly the cause of death was originally listed as a heart attack. Subsequent toxicological reports found concentrations of several drugs, with codeine being ten times the therapeutic level in his system.

1981 On November 28, actress Natalie Wood is found in the water a mile from her yacht (19459028)] Splendor. Along with her husband Robert Wagner, there were only two other men aboard: actor Christopher Walken and ship's captain Dennis Davern. The autopsy report which was notoriously afraid of water, revealed that it had bruises on its body and arms and rubbing on the left cheek. In the 21st century, the podcast "Fatal Voyage" digs into Wood's mysterious demise.

1987 The pathologist dr. Lee Lehman spotted cyanide in the body of John Powell while performing an autopsy at Drake Memorial Hospital. The nurse's nurse Donald Harvey had been linked to the murder after police raided his home and released cyanide and arsenic. Harvey confessed later. He had poisoned patients for years. He was tried and sentenced for 24 murders . Harvey estimated that he worked for 17 years in hospitals, had killed 87 people, but some say 130.

Early 1990s With the development of forensic photogrammetry, the idea of ​​a non-invasive documentation of body surfaces developed Help with CT scans, MRI and 3D Scanning the surface has taken root. The Swiss professor Richard Dirhofer coined the term "Virtopsie" – a model for "virtual" and "autopsy".

1995 After serial killer Jeffrey Dahmer was beaten to death in prison, his body remained partially tied until a doctor started the autopsy. His brain was removed and kept for possible studies.

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2002 The first hard evidence that football matches could cause permanent brain damage was discovered when Steelers Center Mike Webster died at the age of 50. Dr Bennet Omalu, who conducted Webster's autopsy, said : "I've seen changes that should not be in the brain of a 50-year-old man, and also changes that should not be in a brain that looked normal."
The condition Webster had chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE)

2002 Gunter von Hagens, the creator of the exhibition Body Worlds was the first public autopsy in Britain for nearly 200 years. On the evening of November 20, he performed the proceedings in front of a randomly-selected, paying audience, which was then aired in an edited, documentary version. The event was held in secret because its legality was ambiguous. It was uncertain if Von Hagens had a British autopsy license.

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			<span class= Getty Images Régis BOSSU

2003 The Virtuosity is performed on a 3,000-year-old mummy provided by the British Museum: The mummy named Nesperennub was virtually unpacked using state-of-the-art CT scan technology and visualization techniques.

2007 When Anna Nicole Smith was found unresponsive on February 8, no one could suspect the cause accidental overdose of sleeping pills and at least eight other prescription drugs died.

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<p class= 2007 L autopsy was reduced by more than half from 19.3 percent to 8.5 percent between 1972 and 2007. In 1972, 79 percent of the autopsies were for deaths and 19 percent for external causes. By 2007, percentages were 46 percent and 50 percent, respectively.

2009 An autopsy of pop icon Michael Jackson reveals that he had died from a propofol overdose – in line with a major surgical anesthesia – but with several tranquilizers that Dr. Conrad Murray was to contribute to him on the morning of his death. Murray served as a cardiologist as a tourist doctor of Jackson and now served because of involuntary manslaughter for his role in the death of the singer a penalty.

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			<span class= Getty Images William Mancebo

2018 On Jan. 16, 21-year-old Tyler Hilinski's quarterback in Washington state after early symptoms of the CTE he took his own life. With the brain of a 65-year-old, his death is a tragic reminder that the CTE is not limited to athletes who have ended their careers, and CEO of the Concussion Legacy Foundation: "Scientists hope to have a preliminary diagnostic criteria for diagnosis within five years of the CTE during life. "


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