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ACE Insights | Youth Training: Considerations and strategies for the development of the 3 areas



Youth training is more popular than ever. This can be partly attributed to the fact that childhood obesity has increased significantly in the last three decades and many children are predisposed to health problems and chronic diseases (Xu et al., 2016, Copeland et al., 2013, Springer et al , 2013). This has heightened awareness of movement in this population, as exercise is one of the most effective treatments for preventing obesity and disease, as well as improving health and performance-related variables (Faigenbaum et al., 2009).

should go beyond the traditional approach of influencing the psychomotor domain. Health and mobility professionals training this population should consider strategies that help develop the three areas of learning: cognitive, affective, and psychomotor (Hoque, 201

6). Although the psychomotor domain in our area is of paramount importance, the two other domains should not be neglected. Improving all three areas enables individuals to improve their self-efficacy while gaining the knowledge, skills, and attitudes to develop the entire person and encourage future participation in exercises.

To improve the field of psychomotor through youth training, you should teach the basics basic movements. In addition, participants must be emotionally mature to follow and understand instructions. Especially in this population, the right body mechanics is of the utmost importance. Youth training should aim to teach each client how to properly do the following: walking, running, accelerating, braking, jumping, landing, pushing, pulling, hinging, squatting, turning, and preventing rotation (eg, anti-rotation). Once a person becomes competent and learns the basic movements, complex exercises can be taught and integrated into the program.

In order to positively influence the psychomotor domain, however, the other two domains must also be considered. Physical activity has been shown to positively affect cognitive and affective areas (Bidzan-Bluma et al., 2018). In this way you can achieve the most entertaining training experience while recognizing the uniqueness of youth.

Proper programming and guidance can also positively influence and develop the other two areas. As the cognitive domain focuses on the mental and thinking processes, the affective domain focuses on emotions, attitudes, and emotions (Hoque, 2016). Once you know and understand the basic movements, you can apply, analyze, synthesize, and evaluate them (Hoque, 2016). A challenge for teens, where each individual analyzes and evaluates the movements learned during the session, improves the cognitive domain. For example, adolescent clients can be asked what the purpose of each exercise is while identifying the important components of each movement. The ability of children to understand why they are performing a movement or activity can have a positive impact on future participation in training.

Next, you can continue to positively influence the cognitive domain while affecting the affective domain. One of the simplest and most effective ways to develop the affective area is to group children into groups, paying attention, respect, responsibility, and teamwork, as in team sport. One strategy that needs to be considered and highlighted in educating this population is to allow individual leadership, responsibility and choice. For example, it can be beneficial for participation and effort to allow adolescent customers to conduct the warm-up and choose from certain exercises, while at the same time influencing personal responsibility. Another strategy is for each individual to teach, encourage, analyze and evaluate other young participants. For example, adolescent clients could encourage each other with praise and gestures, or analyze the crouch of their training partner – these actions have a positive impact on all areas. To hear another child say to his training partner, "Great work!", Could have a more positive effect on self-efficacy and self-confidence than if the child were constantly listening to praise and encouragement from other adults. The development of cognitive and affective domains will contribute to the improvement of the psychomotor domain while providing a pleasant climate and experience. This allows each client to appreciate each other, improve self-efficacy in relation to human movement, and build relationships and habits beyond the weight room.

You want to learn how to develop and lead age and skills. Level matching fitness programs? Become an ACE Youth Fitness Specialist and expand your customer offer. References

Bidzan-Bluma, I. and Lipowska, M. (2018). Physical Activity and Cognitive Functioning of Children: A Systematic Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15, 800, 113.

Copeland, K.C. et al. (2013). Management of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in children and adolescents. Pediatrics, 131, 2, 364382.

Faigenbaum, A.D. et al. (2009). Youth Strength Training: Updated National Strength and Conditioning Association Position Paper. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 23, 5, S60S79.

Hoque, M.E. (2016). Three areas of learning: cognitive, affective and psychomotor. The Journal of EFL Education and Research, 2, 2, 4552.

Springer, S.C. (2013). Management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents. Pediatrics, 113, 2, 648664.

Xu, S. and Xue, Y. (2016). Obesity in children: causes, symptoms, prevention and treatment. Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, 11, 1, 1520.


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