Health professionals and athletes use different types of oral instructions to effectively communicate and instruct their clients to move efficiently and perform an exercise successfully. Verbal instructions in the form of key words have shown that they improve engine control and learning while optimizing engine performance (Benz et al., 2016, Makaruk et al., 2014, Wulf, 2013, Marchant, 2011). The hints you use help you improve your client's ability to perform the movement, and over time help him demonstrate unconscious competence in performing a particular movement or exercise. Unconscious competence allows a client to think minimally about the movement or exercise, instead focusing his attention on the successful completion of the task. For example, if the client feels more comfortable with an exercise such as squat, they no longer have to think about how to perform the movement. Therefore, the client may direct their attention to performing the movement with superior performance (eg, hitting an earlier personal record or improving the maximum of 1
As a health and exercise professional, you can help your clients move More effective and efficient use of two types of verbal cues: internal and external cues. Internal cues – or the internal focus of attention – can be used to improve motor learning and motor performance, especially for inexperienced customers whose motion or movement techniques often need to be significantly improved. Internal cues draw a client's attention to his body and the process of movement that relates to the exercise to be performed (Winkelman et al., 2017; Benz et al., 2016; Makaruk et al., 2014; Wulf, 2013; Marchant, 2011 Peh et al., 2011). If you tell your customers to squat through their heels or explode through the hips or jump through their feet as they jump and sprint.
You can also use external signals to improve the motor skills learning and performance in all populations. External cues – or external cues – draw a client's attention to the impact of the movement on the environment and the outcome of movement in relation to the exercise to be performed (Winkelman et al., 2017; Benz et al., 2013). 2016; Makaruk et al., 2014; Wulf, 2013; Marchant, 2011; Peh et al., 2011). When you ask your client to bump the floor during squats or push off (explode) when jumping and sprinting, these are examples of external signals.
The previous literature suggests that the external signal is the most effective method Indications for improving motor learning and performance in all population groups (Winkelman et al., 2017; Benz et al., 2016; Wulf, 2013; Makaruk et al., 2014). For example, external cueing has been shown to enhance the motor learning process by increasing motion efficiency and efficiency. While motion efficiency is "associated with accuracy, consistency, and reliability in achieving the goal of movement," movement efficiency is "the investment of relatively little physical and mental effort" when the movement is successfully performed (Wulf, 2013).
By comparison, internal cueing has not proven to be the most effective way to improve engine learning and engine performance (Winkelman et al., 2017; Benz et al., 2016; Makaruk et al., 2014) Wulf, 2013). In addition, it has been shown that this form of cueing may even affect performance in certain situations (Halperin et al., 2017, Halperin and Williams et al., 2016). From the literature and the experience of experts can be derived, however, that internal cueing depending on the supplied population can bring benefits. In particular, this type of hint for beginners can be beneficial. In addition, internal stimulation has been shown to improve muscle recruitment and activation and possibly muscle development, depending on the population served (Schoenfeld et al., 2016, Marchant, 2011, Snyder, 2009).
Although existing literature is widely used, the use of external evidence helps to improve movement efficiency; All kinds of clues should be used to improve and instruct human movement. Begin teaching a movement or exercise with two or three clues to influence the desired movement, and make sure that the client knows the purpose of the exercise. This gives the customer time to understand the information, to feel competent and not to be overwhelmed. Also, ask your customers which cues they think are most effective and watch the cues influence the desired movements throughout the session. Note, however, that all clients are different, and one may be more responsive to internal cues, while another may prefer external cues. So, when you see which cueing types are more effective than others, and ask for your customers' input and preferences, you can move more efficiently and effectively.
In addition to verbal cues, you can use visual cueing (by demonstrating the correct exercise technique) and should be used as they all affect human movement efficiency. So make sure you use a combination of cueing variables that are aligned with existing literature guidelines, customer preferences, and anecdotal training to maximize your customers' movement efficiency and efficiency.
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Halperin, I., Chapman, DW, Martin, DT, & Abbiss, C. (2017). The effects of attention focus instructions on the impact speed and impact forces of trained martial artists. Journal of Sports Sciences 35 (5), 500-507.
Halperin, I., Williams, K.J., Martin, D.T. & Chapman, D.W. (2016). The effects of focusing instructions on force production during isometric pulling in the middle of the thigh. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research 30 (4), 919-923.
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Snyder, B.J., & Leech, J.R. (2009). Voluntary increase of latissimus dorsi muscle activity during latziefing after expert instruction. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research 23 (8), 2204-2209.
Winkelman, N.C., Clark, K.P. & Ryan, L.J. (2017). Experience level affects the effect of attention on sprint performance. Human Movement Science 52 84-95.
Wulf, G. (2013). Attention focus and motor learning: a look back at 15 years. International Journal of Sports and Exercise Psychology 6 (1), 77-104.