New resistance training research shows that some methods are more effective than others in building muscle and reducing fat. Here are some tips for optimizing your training methods and improving your body composition. These training methods are:
- Dose-Response Training
- Mixed Intensity Training
- Multi-Joint and Single-Joint Training
- One-Sided Training for the Nuclear Muscle
The Exercise volume (or how many sets and repetitions of an exercise are required to induce muscle changes) is a long-standing debate in sports and fitness. In order to determine a dose effect, the researchers used common exercises such as bench press, pull down, shoulder press and press to test the effectiveness of one, three or five exercises on body composition. After the participants did the exercises three times a week for six months, the researchers concluded that doing one, three, and five exercises all lowered body fat and increased muscle mass. However, the effects were greatest for the five-set group and confirmed a dose-response effect for muscle building and body fat reduction (Radaelli et al., 201
If five sentences are good, then 10 must be better, according to the logic of German Volume Training (GVT). However, when researchers looked at the effects of GVT (10 sets of 10 repetitions) on muscle growth and body composition compared to a traditional program with five sets of 10 repetitions, the results favored five sets. Both the 10 and 5 set training methods increased muscle mass, but five sets increased muscle mass more than 10 sets (Amirthalingam et al., 2017).
The note on training volume (at least for the subject involved in the above study) is clear: to maximize body composition, five sets of 10 repetitions per resistance exercise are the most effective approach.
Mixed intensity training
Along with training volume Training intensity is arguably the most important programming variable for resistance training. Although high-intensity exercises are undoubtedly effective, recent research suggests that mixed-intensity exercises are also effective. To determine the effectiveness of mixed-intensity training in muscle hypertrophy, researchers investigated the difference between three high-intensity sets (80% 1-RM), three low-intensity sets (30% 1-RM), and a total result showed that a single high load set in combination with a drop set can similarly increase the cross sectional area of the muscle when compared to three sets of high or low intensity exercises. Even with less training and less training, data suggest that a mixed-intensity protocol is an effective, time-saving training method for changing body composition (Ozaki et al., 2018).
Multijoint and Instructor Training
Whether you're doing multi-joint or single-joint exercises is another common fitness debate. Multipoint exercises are considered more functional and use more muscle groups and therefore require more energy to increase muscle hypertrophy. One study compared the effects of equal-volume, single-joint and multi-conjoint resistance training on body composition. Participants either performed single-joint exercises (eg, dumbbell fly, knee extension, knee flexion, pec deck, bicep curl, incline dumbbell, tummy curl, lateral dumbbell lift, lat pull, deltoid back, deltoid back, calf extension, and calf) or multipoint exercises (eg Bench presses, deadlifts, squats, press backs, military press, lat pulls and row of seats). The results showed that at a total workload, both multi-joint and single-joint exercises resulted in a reduction in body fat and increased muscle mass without any distinction between them. This suggests that the choice of multi-joint or single-joint exercises may be based on personal preference (Paoli et al., 2015)
One-sided training for core muscles
One-sided training is a great way to both Edit body pages the same. In addition, some unilateral exercises train the core muscles. When researchers compared the activation of the core muscles between the single-sided and single-sided free-weight series of cables and machine series, the results show that unilateral exercise activates the external oblique muscles by up to 41% more than the bilateral exercises (Saeterbakken et al ., 2015).
An example of one-way training is shown below. Note that it includes a one-sided exercise and a one-sided or bilateral exercise of your choice. To stay within the current programming guidelines, five times toggle and repeat the five exercises, and make sure the resistance intensities and rest intervals are adjusted based on your individual fitness level.
Rest Between Sets
|Single-sided dumbbell curved row||10||
80% of 1RM
|0 to 60 seconds|
|One-sided or two-sided sub or Upper Body Exercise||10||
|0 to 60 seconds|
Amirthalingam, T. et al. (2017). Effects of a modified German volume training on muscle hypertrophy and strength. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 31, 11, 3109-3119 (19459023).
H. Ozaki et al. (2018). Effects of Drop Sets with Resistance Training on Increasing Muscle CSA, Strength and Endurance: A Pilot Study. Journal of Sports Sciences, 36, 6, 691-696.
Paoli, A. et al. (2015). Strength training with single or multi-joint exercises with the same total load volume: effects on body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle strength. Frontiers in Physiology, 8, 1105.
Radaelli, R. et al. (2015). Dose response of 1, 3 and 5 resistance exercises on strength, local muscle endurance and hypertrophy. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 29, 5, 1349-1358.
Saeterbakken, A. et al. (2015). The effect of performing two- and one-sided rally exercises on the activation of the nuclear muscle. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 36, 11, 900-905.